Photo Of The Month

From Washington State
The goats are doing great and adjusting just fine! They have been sleeping in the house the past week and we just moved them to a small outdoor pen yesterday. They love roaming around with us and we all enjoy the sounds of these little maaaaaaaaas! My daugter took one of them to dog agility the other day and had a blast, she might do goat pack agility at fair. River is learning all sorts of new things and loves every second with the babies!
Just thought I would give you an update! Thanks!

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Home » Articles » Diseases, Injuries, Parasites and More

Diseases, Injuries, Parasites and More

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91. Navel ill
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  goatwisdom Navel ill 1771 This is a term describing a systemic infection which starts at the navel and causes other symptoms throughout the body. It is prevented by careful application of iodine or other antiseptic to the navel at birth and keeping the newborn kid in a clean environment until the navel is dried and no longer susceptible to bacterial penetration. It is frequently accompanied by a high fever and painful, swollen joints. It is a VERY serious ailment and should be treated immediately and aggressively. Since the disease can be caused by any number of organisms it is really not practical to search for the cause. The organisms can even enter other wounds or be ingested. There is some thinking than maternal uterine infections can be causative. You may first notice a fever as high as 106 degrees. The kid may stop sucking. There may be thickening with or without pus around the navel. It may show some lameness and stand with a "tucked up" appearance with swollen and painful joints. There may be a rapid pulse and breathing. In severe cases there may be a discharge from the joints. Treatment Begin immediate treatment with penicillin at least every 8 hours for five days. Some sources say to give the penicillin every 3 hours the first day or so. Drain but do not lance any abscesses at the umbilicus. If it is fly season, you will have to use something to keep flies from laying eggs there. If there is also diarrhea, you can add sulfa to the treatment routine. Since this disease is so serious, if there is any herniation at birth or anything leading you to suspect that the kid may be a likely candidate for navel ill, you should start a regimen of penicillin right away. If it is any encouragement, we were able to cure a calf with severe navel ill by aggressive treatment with penicillin as outlined above.  
Sunday, 23 August 2009 | 6087 hits | Print | PDF |  E-mail | Report
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Small Ruminant Info Sheet by SUSAN SCHOENIAN CD-T vaccinations Vaccines are “cheap” insurance against diseases that commonly affect sheep and goats. It is generally recommended that sheep and goats be vaccinated against three clostridial diseases: clostridium perfringins type C and D and clostridium tetani (tetanus). Clostridia bacteria are normal inhabitants of the soil and sometimes the animal’s gut. Clostridium perfringins is more commonly called enterotoxemia or overeating disease.  Type C primarily affects lambs and kids during their first few weeks of life.  Type D (pulpy kidney disease) affects lambs and kids that are usually over a month of age, particularly those that are creep-fed or finished on concentrate diets. CD-T toxoid is the vaccine usually used to protect healthy sheep and goats against the three aforementioned clostridial diseases. There is also an 8-way vaccine that provides protection against five more clostridial diseases, but the extra protection is usually not necessary on most sheep and goat farms. The CD-T toxoid should be administered to ewes and does during their last month of pregnancy.  If pregnant females have never been vaccinated for CD-T (or their vaccination status is unknown), they require two inoculations, approximately four weeks apart. Pre-lambing vaccinations provide protection to newborn lambs and kids when they consume the colostrum (first milk). The passive immunity that lambs and kids acquire from the colostrum begins to decline after approximately four weeks of age. Consequently, lambs and kids should receive their first vaccinations for CD-T shortly thereafter, followed by a booster four weeks later.  A common practice is to vaccinate lambs and kids at approximately 6 and 10 weeks of age. However, if the dam was not vaccinated at least two weeks before she lambed, lambs and kids should be given the tetanus antitoxin at the time of docking, castrating, and/or disbudding. An antitoxin provides immediate short-term immunity. Lambs and kids from unvaccinated dams should receive their first vaccination for type D overeating disease when they are approximately 3 to 4 weeks of age.  A pre-lambing vaccination is the only way to protect lambs and kids from type C, though the antitoxin could be administered in the event of a disease outbreak. The CD-T vaccine is administered subcutaneously (under the skin) by pulling up a handful of skin to make a “tent,” and sliding the needle into the base of the tent and pressing the plunger. Subcutaneously injections can be given high in the neck, in the axilla (arm pit) region, or over the ribs. Sometimes, an abscess will develop at the injection site. For this reason, the axilla is often the best injection site, especially for market lambs and goats and show animals. All vaccines should be stored and used according to the manufacturer’s label. Needles used to vaccinate animals should not be used to draw vaccine into the syringe. Needles should be changed frequently. An 18-gauge needle is suitable for CD-T vaccinations. Copyright © 2009. Additional reading Understanding vaccination programs (timing is everything) - by Joe Rook The use of vaccines in sheep - University of Minnesota Vaccination schedules to raise antibody concentrations . . . - Cornell University Enterotoxemia (overeating disease) in sheep and goats - Alabama Extension Enterotoxemia (overeating disease) of lambs - Iowa State University Is it necessary to vaccinate goats against overeating disease and tetanus? - NC State University Preventing overeating disease in lambs Tetanus in sheep and goats - Queensland, Australia Created or last updated by Susan Schoenian on 21-Dec-2009 . Susan Schoenian is a Sheep & Goat Specialist at the University of Maryland's Western Maryland Research & Education Center and an affiliated faculty member of the Department of Animal and Avian Sciences at the University of Maryland College Park. She is a certified Professional Animal Scientist. Susan has been with University of Maryland Extension (UME) since 1988. Previously, she served as Farm Management Specialist for Maryland's nine Eastern Shore counties and as a county extension agent in Wicomico County. Her first professional job was as Sheep Specialist for the West Virginia Department of Agriculture. Susan earned her B.S. and M.S. degrees in Animal Science from Virginia Tech and Montana State University, respectively. She raises registered and commercial Katahdin sheep on a small farm called The Baalands in Clear Spring, Maryland. Return to Small ruminant infosheets. Return to Maryland Small Ruminant Page.
Monday, 18 April 2011 | 6250 hits | Print | PDF |  E-mail | Report
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Coccidiosis, Animals General Information The coccidia are members of the suborder Eimeriina. They are typically highly host-, organ-, and tissue-specific. Under natural conditions, most mammals pass small numbers of coccidial oocysts in their faeces, without apparent clinical effect. Coccidiosis becomes important as a disease when animals are reared under conditions that permit the build-up of high numbers of infective oocysts in the environment. This is because the degree of damage caused by coccidia depends upon the numbers of parasites able to replicate in any given site, which depends firstly upon the numbers of infective stages (oocysts) ingested. This is different from other protozoa which may reproduce indefinitely by binary fission, until halted by host immunity or death. Eimeria infections are self limiting because the parasites only pass through a limited number of asexual multiplications. Coccidiosis involves (extensive) destruction of the intestinal epithelia. The effects of intestinal coccidiosis in mammals vary with the host-parasite system. They are mainly related to malabsorption induced by villous atrophy and reduction of brush border enzymes, or to anaemia, hypoproteinaemia and dehydration due to exudative enteritis and colitis caused by epithelial erosion and ulceration. High mortality may occur in ruminants infected by the most pathogenic species (see also Nervous System Diseases, Ruminants). Pathology Cattle About 15 species of Eimeria parasitize cattle; of these E. zuernii and E. bovis are potentially highly pathogenic. Other species, such as E. auburnensis may at times contribute to the general clinical picture. In general, the infection occurs in calves or weaned feeder cattle under one year of age, but clinical disease occasionally occurs in adults, especially if massive infections are acquired during stressful situations. The diseases caused by E. zuernii and E. bovis are very similar; they are characterized by a haemorrhagic diarrhoea which may become so severe that pure blood is passed instead of faeces. Tenesmus is marked, and there is anaemia, weakness, anorexia and emaciation. In severe infections death may occur. The first clinical signs appear just before the peak in oocysts output (day 18–19). At that moment there is maximal loss of epithelium in the large intestine due to destruction of cells by second generation schizogony and gamogony. This causes the exposure of the lamina propria and the formation of diphtheritic membranes. The destruction of the epithelium leads to reduction in the reabsorption of water, Na+ and Cl- from the intestinal contents. The abrupt loss of weight and the reduction of the plasma concentration of these two ions support this contention. Exposed capillaries of the large intestinal lamina propria may rupture, leading to loss of erythrocytes and plasma. Sheep and Goats Coccidial infection is virtually universal in sheep and goats, and large numbers of oocysts may be found in the faeces of clinically normal animals. Coccidiosis in small ruminants is chiefly restricted to young animals up to 4–10 weeks of age. Close morphological similarity between the oocysts of Eimeria species from sheep and goats has caused some confusion in the literature. Relatively little is known about the pathogenicity of the different species, but it has been established that E. ovinoidalis in sheep and its analogue in goats, E. ninakohlyakimovae can be very pathogen. Other species such as E. bakuensis (E. ovina) and E. crandallis in sheep, and E. arloingi and E. christenseni in goats may exacerbate the symptoms of the former two species. Outbreaks of coccidiosis are usually acute and characterized by moderate morbidity and low mortality. There is a green or yellow watery diarrhoea with a fetid odour, occasionally with blood. Abdominal pain, some anaemia (macrocytic, hypochromic), loss of appetite, dehydration, tenesmus, weakness and loss of weight occur. Depression, inactivity, and recumbency are prominent. Pathological changes include thickening of the caecum and colon mucosa, oedema, haemorrhage and hyperaemia. Myiasis, bacterial diarrhoea, and bacterial septicaemia often accompany coccidiosis outbreaks. Horses The only species occurring in horses, Eimeria leuckarti, is not known to cause disease. Swine At least 12 species of Eimeria are thought to occur in swine, and a single species of Isospora. Eimeria spp are not considered a major cause of disease in pigs and many animals are asymptomatic carriers. Isospora suis is the only important species. It causes porcine neonatal coccidiosis, a disease of piglets from about 5–6 days to about 2–3 weeks of age. It is characterized by a yellow, foul smelling diarrhoea, dehydration, occasional vomiting, loss of condition and death, or at the least a temporary check in growth. Morbidity is usually high, mortality low or moderate. Necropsy reveals villous atrophy and a marked, sometimes necrotizing, enteritis of the small intestine. Simultaneous infection of I. suis with viruses and E. coli results in more severe lesions and clinical disease than with coccidia alone. Carnivores There are at least 14 species of coccidia in canine faeces: Isospora canis, Isospora (Cystoisospora) ohioensis, I. burrowsi, I. neorivolta, Hammondia heydorni, Neospora caninum and eight species of Sarcocystis. A total of at least 15 species exist in cats: Isospora felis, I. rivolta, five species of Besnoitia, Hammondia hammondi, Toxoplasma gondii, and six species of Sarcocystis. In relation to pathogenicity, it is usually the intermediate hosts rather than the dog or cat that are adversely affected. Clinical coccidiosis in dogs or cats is apparently caused by certain species of Isospora and by Toxoplasma gondii. For example I. ohioensis can cause clinical disease in newborn pups. Diarrhoea is caused by inflammation of the intestinal crypts, with necrosis and massive desquamation of the tips of villi, especially in the lower part of the small intestine. Immunity and Vaccination Reports from the literature suggest that immunity to coccidia is short-lived in young animals. In contrast, repeated coccidian infections induce a more long-lasting immunity than a single (primary) infection. An increasing infection pressure may cause a deterioration of immunity that is evident by an enhanced number of intracellular developmental stages and so output of oocysts, and possibly the development of clinical signs. The effect of immunity can range from complete (or close on zero) inhibition of oocysts production (premunition) to the passage of smaller numbers of oocysts in the faeces (partial immunity). It is assumed that premunition (immunity of the non sterile type) to coccidia depends upon the persistence of some (occult, extraintestinal) development stages in the immune host from initial infection and/or reinfection. Thus, the acquired (often) species- or even life-cycle-stage specific immunity of the host to coccidia plays an important role in the control of parasites and may depend on various host factors such as individual immune status, age of the host and its genetic background (breed type: innate immunity). It seems that development of natural immunity to coccidiosis through digestion of sporulated oocysts is rather slow and may take several weeks or even longer. Therefore, using vaccines to prevent coccidiosis in the short life span of fattening young animals appears problematic because protective immunity resulting from vaccination may be insufficient. This is true particularly in case of broilers, which life span lasted about 35–40 days only. On the other hand, breeder replacement chicks and commercial layers are able to profit from the immunity protection against coccidiosis. They may be exposed to a controlled number of sporulated coccidia oocysts, i.e., to live virulent vaccines. Today, various types of live vaccine for the control of poultry coccidiosis are available (see Table 1). Coccivac® or Immucox® (sporulated oocysts of wild-type) has been used mainly for replacement birds, which represent a relatively small market in comparison with that of the broiler industry. In using such vaccines it appears economically acceptable to have some loss of performance as result of immunization. However, live virulent Eimeria vaccines for control of coccidiosis in broiler chicken have rarely been used because loss of body weight, and its effect on feed conversion is not acceptable. Attenuated parasites for delivery in the drinking water are `sub-lines' of sporulated oocysts from chicken derived from the progeny of single oocysts. They may be attenuated after long-term passages through the chorioallantoic membranes of embryonating eggs (Livacox®), or they may be recovered after only a few passages with selection for early development by passages through chickens (Paracox®, Livacox®) or rabbits. Precocious lines of coccidia species are drug sensitive and thus any use of anticoccidial drugs should be avoided during the month following vaccination. Precocious lines are characterized by a shorter life cycle, i.e., decrease in prepatent period, number and size of endogenous stages (e.g., deletion of the terminal generation of schizonts of the wild-type parents). They can induce protective immunity against coccidiosis in spite distinct attenuation of their virulence. Such parasites (oocysts) are no longer able to cause infections with severe clinical signs in chickens or rabbits (the production of precocious lines in cattle obviously failed). Problems arising from vaccination in the poultry industry or elsewhere may be the delivery and application practice of such live vaccines. Thus the application management of vaccines seems to be more sophisticated than that of feed-in products in widely used chemoprophylaxis. Another problem may arise through genetic instability in precocious sublines. In addition, cost of production of live “cocktail”-vaccines containing all (Paracox®) or only certain Eimeria spp. (Livacox®) may be considerable and above that of in-feed delivered anticoccidial drugs.   Table 1. Live vaccines on the market.         The chances for developing protective recombinant vaccines against coccidiosis in chickens appear promising though E. maxima shows antigenic diversity, and live Eimeria vaccines may show differences in their virulence and immunogenicity in the individual recipient and different breeds of poultry. The development of effective recombinant vaccines (genetically engineered Eimeria antigens) against poultry and farm livestock coccidiosis has become a major goal in modern parasitology. Since coccidiosis involves the intestinal immune system, understanding of the complex gut-associated immune system is most important in the development of immunological control strategies to coccidian parasites. Different types of antigens (surface-, internal-, secretory antigens of sporozoites, merozoites, gamonts) that induce parasite-specific immunity have been identified by means of monoclonal antibodies against various Coccidia species. Recombinant proteins derived from these antigens have been shown to induce either humoral or cellular response or both, whereas protection against live challenge (sporulated oocysts) proved to be insufficient to weak or partial only. For instance, responses of different poultry breeds vary considerably to such recombinant antigens (epitopes). Sub-unit vaccines developed so far lack epitopes that induce strong protection and this seems to be also true for optimal delivery systems that release these epitopes at the site of infection. Suitable live recombinant vectors derived from bacteria or viruses will be necessary to induce a persistent stimulation of the local immune system by presentation of `perfect' recombinant target antigens to adequate immune effectors. Such approaches are only possible by using biotechnology that requires great skills of molecular biology as well as a profound knowledge of host immune responses to coccidian infection. Until now, there are large gaps in our existing knowledge concerning precise definition of target antigens and immune effectors. Consequently, the development of protective recombinant coccidiosis vaccines will be in any case a long-term and high-risk research project. Furthermore, such a vaccine must not only confer resistance but also be cheap and fit in with current management practice in the poultry industry and farm livestock. An exiting new approach to vaccine development may be highly attenuated bacterial vectors that have the ability to enter epithelial cells and directing plasmid DNA to the cytoplasm of the host cell for protein synthesis and processing for antigen presentation. Delivery of DNA-encoded antigens should permit mucosal immunization against the parasite simultaneously with multiple antigens that can stimulate T helper cells and antibody production, especially the proper folding and conformational epitopes for the immunoglobulins A (IgA) and G (IgG). Aside from the practical oral application of bacterial DNA delivery, this type of vaccines does not need DNA purification and can be produced for the fermentation, lyophilization and packaging. Therapy Coccidiocidal Drugs.
Saturday, 22 August 2009 | 6543 hits | Print | PDF |  E-mail | Report
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Feeding the Goat Herd By Susan Schoenian Area Agent, Sheep and Goats Western Maryland Research & Education Center Feed is the single largest cost associated with raising meat goats. It has a large influence on herd reproduction, milk production and kid growth. Late-gestation and lactation are the most critical periods for doe nutrition. Nutrition level determines kid growth rate. Goats receiving inadequate diets are more prone to disease and will fail to reach their genetic potential. Goats require energy, protein, vitamins, minerals, fiber (bulk) and water. Energy (calories) is usually the most limiting nutrient, whereas protein is the most expensive. Deficiencies, excesses and imbalances of vitamins and minerals can limit animal performance and lead to various health problems. Fiber is necessary to maintain a healthy rumen environment and prevent digestive disturbances. Water is the cheapest feed ingredient and often the most neglected. Many factors affect the nutritional requirements of goats: maintenance, growth, pregnancy, lactation, fiber production, activity and environment. As a general rule of thumb, goats will consume at least 3% of their body weight on a dry matter basis in feed. The exact percentage varies according to the size (weight) of the goat, with smaller animals needing a higher intake (percentage-wise) to maintain their weight. Maintenance requirements increase as the level of the goat's activity increases. For example, a goat that has to travel farther for feed will have a higher maintenance requirement than a goat in a feed lot. Environmental conditions also affect maintenance requirements. In cold and severe weather, goats require more feed to maintain body heat. The added stresses of pregnancy, lactation and growth further increase nutrient requirements. The following chart gives the nutritional requirements for various classes of meat goats:   Animal Protein Energy Bucks 11% CP 60% TDN Dry doe 10% CP 55% TDN Late gestation 11% CP 60% TDN Lactation (avg. milk) 11% CP 60% TDN Lactation (high milk) 14% CP 65% TDN Kid (30 lbs, >.4 lbs/day) 14% CP 68% TDN Yearlings (60 lbs.) 12% CP 65% TDN Source: National Research Council (NRC, 1981) The next chart gives typical "book values" or "ballpark" figures for the nutritional content of various feed stuffs commonly fed to goats.   Feedstuff Protein Energy Mature pasture 8% CP 50% TDN Clover pasture 25% CP 69% TDN Orchard grass pasture 18% CP 65% TDN Browse (Honeysuckle) 16% CP 72% TDN Soybean meal 44% CP 88% TDN Complete pellets 12% CP 78% TDN Barley grain 13.5% CP 84% TDN Corn grain 10% CP 89% TDN Poor hay 8% CP 50% TDN Grass hay 12% CP 58% TDN Mixed hay 15% CP 60% TDN Legume hay 18% CP 62% TDN A goat's nutritional requirements can be met by feeding a variety of feed stuffs. Feed ingredients can substitute for one another so long as the goat's nutritional requirements are being met. Goat feeding programs should take into account animal requirements, feed availability and costs. Pasture and browse Pasture and browse are usually the primary and most economical source of nutrients for meat goats, and in some cases, pasture and/or browse are all goats need to meet their nutritional requirements. Pasture tends to be high in energy and protein when it is in a vegetative state. However, it has a high moisture content, and it is difficult for a high-producing doe or fast-growing kid to eat enough grass to meet its nutrient requirements. As pasture plants mature, palatability and digestibility decline, thus it is important to rotate pastures to keep plants in a vegetative state. During the early part of the grazing season, browse (woody plants, vines and brush) and forbs (weeds) tend to be higher in protein and energy than ordinary pasture. Goats are natural browsers and have the unique ability to select plants when they are at their most nutritious state. Goats which browse have less problems with internal parasites. Hay Hay is the primary source of nutrients for goats during the winter or non-grazing season. Hay varies tremendously in quality and the only way to know the nutritional content is to have the hay analyzed by a forage testing laboratory. Hay is a moderate source of protein and energy for goats. Legume hays – alfalfa, clover, lespedeza – tend to be higher in protein, vitamins and minerals, especially calcium, than grass hays. The energy, as well as protein content of hay depends upon the maturity of the forage when it was cut for forage. Proper curing and storage is also necessary to maintain nutritional quality. Silage Silage made from forage or grain crops has been successfully fed to goats; however, special attention must be paid to quality, as moldy silage can cause listeriosis or "circling disease" in goats. As with fresh forage, the high-producing goat cannot consume enough "wet" silage to meet its nutritional needs. Silage is typically fed on large farms, due to the need for storage and automated feeding equipment. Concentrates (grain) It is oftentimes necessary to feed concentrates to provide the nutrients that forage alone cannot provide. This is particularly true in the case of high-producing animals. There are also times and situations where concentrates are a more economical source of nutrients. Creep feeding and supplemental feeding of kids has been shown to increase growth weight, but should only be done to the extent that it increases profit. There are two types of concentrate feeds: carbonaceous and proteinaceous. Carbonaceous concentrates or "energy" feeds include the cereal grains – corn, barley, wheat, oats, milo, and rye – and various by products feeds, such as fat, soybean hulls and wheat middlings. It is not necessary to process grains for goats unless they are less than six weeks of age. One of the problems with cereal grains is that they are high in phosphorus content, but low in calcium. Feeding a diet that is high in phosphorus and low in calcium can cause urinary calculi (kidney stones) in wethers and bucks. Inadequate calcium can lead to milk fever in pregnant or lactating does. Proteinaceous concentrates or "protein supplements" may be of animal or plant origin and include soybean meal, cottonseed meal, and fish meal. Ruminant-derived meat and bone meal may not be fed to goats.. Protein quantity is more important than protein quality (amino acid content) in ruminant livestock since the microorganisms in the rumen manufacture their own body protein. Goats do not store excess protein; it is burned as energy or eliminated (as nitrogen) by the kidneys. Many feed companies offer "complete" goat feeds – pelleted or textured – which are balanced for the needs of goats in a particular production class. Pelleted rations have an advantage in that goats, who are very selective eaters, cannot sort feed ingredients. In recent years, a number meat goat feed products have been introduced to the market. Complete feeds come in 50 or 100 lb. sacks and tend to be much more expensive than home-made concentrate rations. Vitamins and minerals Many minerals are required by goats. The most important are salt, calcium, and phosphorus. The ratio of calcium to phosphorus should be kept around 2:1. Vitamins are need in small amounts. Goats require vitamins A, D and E, whereas vitamin K and all the B vitamins are manufactured in the rumen. A free choice salt-vitamin-mineral premix should be made available to goats at all times, unless a premix has been incorporated into the grain ration or TMR (total mixed ration). In the very least, does should be fed pre-choice mineral during late gestation and lactation. Either a loose mineral or mineral block may be offered. Force-feeding minerals and vitamins is actually better than offering it free choice since goats will not consume minerals according to their needs. Maryland soil's are deficient in selenium, thus the premix should be fortified with selenium to prevent white muscle disease in kids and reproductive problems in does. Supplementing selenium via the feed or mineral is preferred to giving selenium injections. Goats appear to have a much higher tolerance for copper in their diets as compared to sheep, thus it is recommended that feeds and/or premixes contain copper, unless the goats are co-mingled with sheep. It is possible to get pelleted supplements that contain vitamins and minerals, as well as high levels of protein (34-40%). These supplements can be combined with whole grains to create a balanced concentrate ration. Coccidiostats and antibiotics can also be added to the mineral mix or supplement. Water Goats should have ad libitum access to clean, fresh water at all times. A mature goat will consume between Âľ to 1 ½ gallons of water per day. Inadequate water intake can cause various health problems. In addition water and feed intake are positively correlated. Return to Maryland Goat Conference .
Thursday, 02 July 2009 | 6565 hits | Print | PDF |  E-mail | Report
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CD-T vaccinations Vaccines are “cheap” insurance against diseases that commonly affect sheep and goats. It is generally recommended that sheep and goats be vaccinated against three clostridial diseases: clostridium perfringins type C and D and clostridium tetani (tetanus). Clostridia bacteria are normal inhabitants of the soil and sometimes the animal’s gut. Clostridium perfringins is more commonly called enterotoxemia or overeating disease.  Type C primarily affects lambs and kids during their first few weeks of life.  Type D (pulpy kidney disease) affects lambs and kids that are usually over a month of age, particularly those that are creep-fed or finished on concentrate diets.  CD-T toxoid is the vaccine usually used to protect healthy sheep and goats against the three aforementioned clostridial diseases. There is also an 8-way vaccine that provides protection against five more clostridial diseases, but the extra protection is usually not necessary on most sheep and goat farms. The CD-T toxoid should be administered to ewes and does during their last month of pregnancy.  If pregnant females have never been vaccinated for CD-T (or their vaccination status is unknown), they require two inoculations, approximately four weeks apart. Pre-lambing vaccinations provide protection to newborn lambs and kids when they consume the colostrum (first milk). The passive immunity that lambs and kids acquire from the colostrum begins to decline after approximately four weeks of age. Consequently, lambs and kids should receive their first vaccinations for CD-T shortly thereafter, followed by a booster four weeks later.  A common practice is to vaccinate lambs and kids at approximately 6 and 10 weeks of age. However, if the dam was not vaccinated at least two weeks before she lambed, lambs and kids should be given the tetanus antitoxin at the time of docking, castrating, and/or disbudding. An antitoxin provides immediate short-term immunity. Lambs and kids from unvaccinated dams should receive their first vaccination for type D overeating disease when they are approximately 3 to 4 weeks of age.  A pre-lambing vaccination is the only way to protect lambs and kids from type C, though the antitoxin could be administered in the event of a disease outbreak. The CD-T vaccine is administered subcutaneously (under the skin) by pulling up a handful of skin to make a “tent,” and sliding the needle into the base of the tent and pressing the plunger. Subcutaneously injections can be given high in the neck, in the axilla (arm pit) region, or over the ribs. Sometimes, an abscess will develop at the injection site. For this reason, the axilla is often the best injection site, especially for market lambs and goats and show animals. All vaccines should be stored and used according to the manufacturer’s label. Needles used to vaccinate animals should not be used to draw vaccine into the syringe. Needles should be changed frequently. An 18-gauge needle is suitable for CD-T vaccinations. Copyright © 2009. Additional reading Understanding vaccination programs (timing is everything) - by Joe Rook The use of vaccines in sheep - University of Minnesota Vaccination schedules to raise antibody concentrations . . . - Cornell University Enterotoxemia (overeating disease) in sheep and goats - Alabama Extension Enterotoxemia (overeating disease) of lambs - Iowa State University Is it necessary to vaccinate goats against overeating disease and tetanus? - NC State University Preventing overeating disease in lambs Tetanus in sheep and goats - Queensland, Australia Created or last updated by Susan Schoenian on 21-Dec-2009 . Susan Schoenian is a Sheep & Goat Specialist at the University of Maryland's Western Maryland Research & Education Center and an affiliated faculty member of the Department of Animal and Avian Sciences at the University of Maryland College Park. She is a certified Professional Animal Scientist. Susan has been with University of Maryland Extension (UME) since 1988. Previously, she served as Farm Management Specialist for Maryland's nine Eastern Shore counties and as a county extension agent in Wicomico County. Her first professional job was as Sheep Specialist for the West Virginia Department of Agriculture. Susan earned her B.S. and M.S. degrees in Animal Science from Virginia Tech and Montana State University, respectively. She raises registered and commercial Katahdin sheep on a small farm called The Baalands in Clear Spring, Maryland. Return to Small ruminant infosheets. Return to Maryland Small Ruminant Page.
Saturday, 15 January 2011 | 6587 hits | Print | PDF |  E-mail | Report
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Urinary Stones Saturday, November 17, 2007 - Kay Orlando and National Pygmy Goat Association   Preventing calculi formation is a prime concern for bucks and wethers. Urinary obstruction commonly has tragic results, and owners can help reduce the incidence and/or recurrence. Urine produced in the kidneys flows through the ureters to the bladder for storage. The bladder empties periodically via the urethra. The urethra near the neck of the bladder is called the pelvic urethra. For most of its length the urethra lies within in the spongy tissue of the penis, or penile urethra. The pelvic urethra is fairly large in diameter, but as it turns over the brim of the pelvis, a recess markedly reduces its diameter. It is next to impossible to pass a catheter past the recess and into the bladder of a male goat. The penis forms the sigmoid flexure further down the penile urethra. At this second curve, the urethra is slightly stretched and its inside diameter is reduced. Stones often lodge in the sigmoid flexure. The urethral process, a fleshy appendage at the end of the penis, is the narrowest part of the urethra and a common site of blockage. The urethral process has no function in breeding. Sperm travels from the testicles through the inguinal ring via the ductus deferens. The ductus deferens enters the urethra near the entry of the ureters near the neck of the bladder. Sperm then travels through the urethra. Blockage disrupts the buck's ability to breed. Kidneys eliminate body wastes, metabolic byprod¬ucts, excess minerals and water via the urine. Urine composition varies with diet, amount of water elimi¬nated and kidney function. A substance in fairly high concentration in the urine may form calculi. Precipita¬tion usually occurs around a small cluster of normal cellular debris or from an infection. The process is similar to sugar crystallizing on a string suspended in a sugar solution to form rock candy. Calculi grow in size until they are flushed down the urethra. Stones are commonly formed by magnesium, ammonium or cal¬cium phosphate. Most stones are smaller than a BB. Calculi in the kidney or pelvic ureter generally produce no outward symptoms as long as the body can compensate for any lack of function. Stones in the urethra can cause partial or complete obstruction. Dribbling bloody urine, discomfort, straining to urinate and lack of appetite are seen with partial obstruction. Complete obstruction results in a distended bladder with signs of abdominal pain or colic. The goat is very restless and may kick at his abdomen. Straining to urinate causes intense pain, and he may cry out. Belly hair at the end of the penis, normally wet in bucks and wethers, remain dry. Obstructed males often stand with their rear legs extended backwards. If the obstruction is not alleviated, the bladder ruptures or the urethra perfo¬rates and urine collects in the abdomen. Waste products produce progressive uremia and death. The exact mechanisms causing calculi are complex and not fully understood. Several factors may play a part. Different types of stones form under different sets of circumstances. Analysis of the type involved is im¬portant in treatment and prevention. Treatment varies, depending on type of blockage and the goat's condition. It is very important to recognize the problem and get prompt veterinary attention. Uri-nary obstruction is a medical emergency! The longer a goat is unable to urinate, the sicker it gets. Animals suffering from severe uremia do not respond well even if the obstruction is removed. Blockage at the urethral process can be alleviated by surgically removing the process. Stones lodged in the sigmoid flexure can sometimes be massaged and moved out. Blockage high in the urethra almost always re-quires some type of surgery. Goats commonly have multiple calculi and recurrence is a real problem. The bladder may contain many more stones than those that block the urethra. It is vital that analysis of stones be done by a laboratory to determine the make-up. Treat¬ment to prevent further blockage often depends on the type of stone involved. Urine Concentration & Urination Frequency Concentrated urine is more likely to trigger stones, as is urine that stays in the bladder for long periods. Decreased water intake causes more concentrated urine. Bucks generally urinate more often than wethers. Provide adequate, clean water, especially in cold weather. Add salt to the diet to cause the goat to drink more water and dilute the urine. Salt may also decrease the amount of phosphorus and magnesium deposited around the calculus. Nutrition Certain diets promote stone formation. Animals grazing pastures high in silicates have a higher inci¬dence of silicate stones. Grain and concentrates are high in phosphates, and urinary excretion increases the concentration of phosphate in the urine. High concen¬trate rations may produce a "cementing" factor in the urine which favors stone production. Mineral consump¬tion varies with the type of trace mineral salt used and the amount of minerals in the water supply. Excesses of ingested minerals increase their concentrations. Alfalfa appears to increase urine flow because of its higher protein concentration. Alfalfa is high in calcium which helps tie up the phosphorus ion which may be an ingredient in calculi. Since phosphorus is implicated, a Ca:P ratio of 2:1 will help keep phosphorus in solution. This can be done by adding ground limestone to the ration or feeding alfalfa hay. Phosphorus is high in grains, molasses and grass hays. Decrease the grain ration. Check pastures for silicates and oxalates which are a problem in some areas of the country and in some types of pasture. Limit males' access to such pastures. I have found wide content variation in trace mineral salt, especially magnesium and copper. The amount ofphosphorus and magnesium in any vitamin and mineral supplement must also be considered. I use a trace mineral salt that contains no magnesium or copper. Urine Ph Goat urine pH tends to be alkaline but varies with the type of diet and the length of time since eating. Phosphate crystals form more easily in alkaline urine, and silicates in acid urine. Bacteria in urine can produce ammonia that makes the urine pH much more alkaline. Adding ammonium chloride to the ration does not have the same good results in goats as it does in dogs and cats. However, the chloride ion itself may cause the goat to drink more water and dilute the urine. Bladder Infection Calculi form around a small amount of cellular debris called a nidus. Kidney and bladder infections increase the amount of this debris. When calculi are encountered, treat for urinary in¬fection. Urinary infections can increase urine alkalinity and promote phosphate crystals. Urethral Size Some experts think early castration may prevent the urethra from attaining its full diameter. A wether's smaller diameter urethra makes it more susceptible to blockage, but not stone formation itself.. Research has not been done to support this, and I doubt that deferred castration will decrease the incidence in wethers. Herds or bloodlines with higher than average inci¬dence of calculi may consider delayed castration, al-though it is not scientifically proven to be effective. Individual Genetic Make-up Some animals are more prone to stone formation than others and produce stones under circumstances that do not affect others. Because so many variables are involved, it is diffi¬cult to outline a prevention or treatment program that applies to everyone. Many breeders have no problems. Others have many, even though management practices discourage stone formation. It is important to work with your veterinarian who can best help with your individ¬ual herd and area of the country. XIV #4 Winter 1991   Reprinted with permission Kay Orlando and National Pygmy Goat Association. Please visit the National Pygmy Goat Association and Best of Memo 3  
Sunday, 23 August 2009 | 6638 hits | Print | PDF |  E-mail | Report
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  A Parasite Primer Utilize fecal egg counts to rate the effectiveness of your parasite control program. Do not under-dose - goats require that most wormer dosages be doubled. It is recommended that all wormers be given to goats orally, regardless of product. Always treat new animals when they are brought into the herd. Rotate to clean pastures after worming, wait 48 hours after treatment (minimum) before turning out in clean pasture. Rotate anthelmintics when resistance develops. Watch withdrawal times on market animals. Select breeding stock that shows resistance to parasites. Most anthelmintics are not approved for sheep or goats, work with your veterinarian to develop an effective strategy. Be careful relying solely on fecal egg counts or FAMANCHA charts. When worms are dormant (December – February) they don’t lay eggs. If you treat during this time it will greatly reduce pasture contamination in the spring. Are your goats showing signs of parasites? Anthelmintics by Class   Family (Class) Drug (Compound) Product Name Avermectin Ivermectin Ivomec     Double Impact     Top Line         Doramectin Dectomax         Eprinomectin Eprinex       Milbymycin Moxidectin Cydectin     Quest Equine Wormer       Benzimidazole Thiabendazole TBZ     Thiabendazole     Omnizole         Mebendazole Telmin         Fenbendazole Benzelmin     Synanthic         Oxibendazole Anthelcide   Albendazole Valbazen*** Pro-benzimidazole Febantel Rintel       Imidothiazole Levamisole Levasol     Tramisole     Totalon     Prohibit       Tetrahydropyrimidine Morantel Rumital       ***Do not give to pregenant females, may cause abortion Anthelmintics for Goat Producers Avermectins   Brand Name: Ivomec, Double Impact, Top-line, Phoenectin Pour-on Active Ingredient(s): ivermectin 1% (injectable) ivermectin 0.5% (pour-on) Availability: OTC Withdrawal: 35 days before slaughter Indications: Control of internal and external parasites Dosage: 1ml per 110 lbs. SQ (injectable) 1ml per 22 lbs. applied topically (pour-on) Goat Notes: Give all avermectin wormers orally. 1% Injectable 1ml per 50lbs; 0.5% pour on 1ml per 10 lbs.   Brand Name: Ivomec Plus Active Ingredient(s): ivermectin 1% and clorsulon 10% Availability: OTC Withdrawal: 56 days before slaughter Indications: Control of internal and external parasites including adult liver flukes Dosage: 1ml per 110 lbs. SQ Goat Notes: 1ml per 50 lbs. to control external and internal parasites including liver flukes   Brand Name: Dectomax Active Ingredient(s): doramectin 1% injectable; doramectin 0.5% pour-on Availability: OTC Withdrawal: 35 days before slaughter for injectable; 42 days before slaughter for pour-on Indications: Control of internal and external parasites Dosage: 1ml per 75 lbs. SQ or IM (injectable) 5ml per 110 lbs. applied topically (pour-on) Goat Notes: 1 ml per 35 lbs. given orally (injectable) 1lm per 10 lbs. given orally (pour-on)   Brand Name: Eprinex (Ivomec) Active Ingredient(s): eprinomectin 5mg Availability: OTC Withdrawal: No slaughter or milk withdrawal on cattle Indications: Control of internal and external parasites Dosage: 5ml per 100 lbs. applied topically (pour-on) Goat Notes: 1 ml per 10 lbs. Great for treating kids; although a larger amount is needed per pound, small goats can be accurately dosed. Used frequently in dairy goats(No milk withdrawal) at 2-3 times the cattle dose. Milbymycin   Brand Name: Cydectin, Quest Equine Wormer Active Ingredient(s): moxidectin Availability: OTC Withdrawal: No slaughter withdrawal on cattle Indications: Control of internal and external parasites Dosage: 5ml per 110 lbs. applied topically Goat Notes: Cydectin Pour on: 1ml per 10 lbs. given orally - this is the most effective wormer we have right now. Benzimidazole   Brand Name: Safe-guard, Panacur, Benzelmin Active Ingredient(s): fenbendazole Availability: OTC Withdrawal: 8 days before slaughter Indications: Control of internal parasites Dosage: varies with brand and type of product Goat Notes: Treat with 3x the label dosage for 3 days in a row to kill tape worms. Most stomach and intestinal worms show resistance to fenbendazole products. Extremely high safety margin.   Brand Name: Synanthic Active Ingredient(s): oxfendazole Availability: OTC Withdrawal: 11 days before slaughter Indications: Control of internal parasites Dosage: varies with brand and type of product Goat Notes: Treat with 2x - 3x the label dosage for 3 days in a row to kill tape worms. Most stomach and intestinal worms show resistance to fenbendazole products. Synanthic can be given to weak and anemic goats at 2x the sheep dosage when goats heavily infested with parasites and are unlikely to be able to recover from the bleed out of a large parasite population dying at one time. Extremely high safety margin.   Brand Name: Valbazen Active Ingredient(s): albendazole Availability: OTC Withdrawal: days before slaughter Indications: Use Valbazen to control of internal parasites including adult liver flukes. Dosage: varies with type of product Goat Notes: Treat with 3x the label dosage for 3 days in a row to kill tape worms. Most stomach and intestinal worms show resistance to fenbendazole products. Extremely high safety margin. Do not use on does of breeding age that have been exposed to a buck, or those that are bred. May cause abortion or birth defects. Tetrahydropyrimidine   Brand Name: Strongid - T Active Ingredient(s): pyrantel pamoate Availability: OTC Withdrawal: not established Indications: Control of internal parasites Dosage: 3 mg per 1 lb. Goat Notes: 4.5 mg per 1 lb. Has bee recommended for use in goats.   Brand Name: Rumatel Active Ingredient(s): morantel tartrate Availability: OTC Withdrawal: 30 days before slaughter Indications: Control of internal parasites Dosage: Use to medicate feed at the rate of 0.44 grams per 100lbs. Goat Notes: Mix crumbles in feed at the rate of 25 lbs. per ton. Use this as supplemental parasite control; continue worming with other products as needed. Worm goats thoroughly before starting on medicated feed. Coccidia Prevention   Brand Name: Bovatec Active Ingredient(s): lasalocid sodium Availability: OTC Withdrawal: None Indications: Control of coccidia FDA approved for non-lactating sheep. Dosage: not less than 15 mg and no more than 70 mg daily. Do not feed to Equines. Goat Notes: It is available as a feed additive and in blocks. Caution: Bovatec blocks are high in copper.   Brand Name: Corrid Active Ingredient(s): amprolium Availability: OTC Withdrawal: 1 day before slaughter for beef calves Indications: Control of coccidia Dosage: mix in drinking water as directed. Corrid is available in liquid or soluble powder. Goat Notes: Coccidia has shown a high incidence of resistance with Corrid. There are other products on the market that are more effective. Also, Corrid depletes the thiamin levels in the rumen, need to watch out for thiamin deficiency polio when treating.   Brand Name: Deccox Active Ingredient(s): decoquinate Availability: OTC Withdrawal: none Indications: Control of coccidia Dosage: Mix in feed ration to provide a daily dose of 22.7mg per 100 lbs. Feed for at least 28 days during exposure or stress. Goat Notes: Although many people prefer Deccox because of it is safe around equines, Deccox is a rumen inhibitor, and I don't believe is as effective as rumensin or bovatec.   Brand Name: Rumensin Active Ingredient(s): monensin sodium Availability: OTC Withdrawal: None Indications: Control of coccidia Dosage: Mix 20g rumensin per ton of feed. Can feed continuously. Goat Notes: Most effective product for goats. Ingestion by equines can be fatal.   Brand Name: Sulmet Active Ingredient(s): sulfamethazine Availability: OTC Withdrawal: 10 days before slaughter Indications: Bacterial pneumonia, E.Coli, Diphtheria, mastitis, and coccidiosis. May use soluble powder, constitute per package instruction and give 15cc orally. Dosage:   Goat Notes: Dose orally or mix with drinking water, first dose is double the following four doses. Do not give with penicillin.   Brand Name: Albon Active Ingredient(s): sulferdimethox Availability: OTC Withdrawal: 10 days before slaughter Indications: Sulferdimethox is effective against Bacterial pneumonia, E.Coli, Diphtheria, mastitis, and coccidiosis. May use soluble powder, constitute per package instruction and give 15cc orally. Dosage: can be drenched or mixed with drinking water for self-medicating. Goat Notes: Available in liquid and soluble powder form. Albon is also available in injectable form. It is very effective for coccidia and certain types of mastitis. Can also be added to milk replacer to treat kids. Good management for freshly castrated kids. Do not give with penicillin. Return to the Medicine Chest Return to the Goat Page setstats
Friday, 02 October 2009 | 6768 hits | Print | PDF |  E-mail | Report
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                                                        NUTRITIONAL NEEDS OF GOATS Whether you raise goats on small pasturage, large acreage, or in pens, their nutritional needs must be met in order to produce quality animals. Each circumstance dictates how the producer must structure his goat operation. Most goat breeders are small operators on limited amounts of land. Adequate browse and forage is often not available, making supplemental feeding of protein necessary year around. Even those producers who run goats on hundreds or thousands of acres must provide supplemental feed during periods of drought or severe inclement and cold weather. Animals raised only on forage or pasturage year around generally are lacking in essential nutrients. Today's goat market is primarily a breeder's market, as each of us strives to produce enough quality herd sire and dams upon which a meat-goat industry can be built. If every goat in this country were slaughtered today, the demand for goat meat would not be met. Producers of breeding stock want to keep their animals nearby to be able to evaluate their development and to determine if their breeding program is progressing as planned. For the short term, intensive management operations will likely prevail. Goats are very picky eaters, but their attraction to anything containing fiber can cause problems for producers and for their own health. Tree bark, newspaper, feed sacks, foam pipe wrap . . . all are irrestible to goats. Some of these items, if eaten, can kill them. Try to "think like a goat" when designing pens, building fences, insulating pipe, etc. Goats are extremely curious animals; if they can get themselves in a life-threatening situation, they seem to do it! For example: When insulating water pipe with foam pipe wrap, sleeve it with PVC pipe which has been cut in half lengthwise and then tie the two pieces together with hard plastic telephone ties. It takes lots of Milk of Magnesia to get foam pipe wrap through a goat's digestive system. And it makes them "sick as a goat"! Fresh, clean water is essential to the continued good health of goats. Keep water troughs very clean. Dirty water is a quick route to illness. Algae grows rapidly in water troughs which receive direct sunlight during hot summer days. An automatic chlorination system is best, but algae can be controlled by adding not more than one ounce of bleach to 15 gallons of drinking water. Take care. Too much bleach will kill the vital bacteria in goats' stomachs. In addition to salt blocks, producers should provide, on a free choice basis, loose minerals containing 950 to 1250 ppm of copper. Loose minerals are better because blocks lose essential nutrients when they are heat shrunk. Plus, mineral blocks are hard on goats' teeth. Unlike cows, who lick blocks, goats will bite off small chunks with their lower front teeth. Don't use minerals labelled "for sheep & goats." Copper is toxic to sheep, so it won't exist in these products. Use a loose cattle mineral for your goats. Goats are ruminants, so hay is essential to their diets. A broad-leaved sweet hay such as Haygrazer (a sudangrass) is preferred over the narrow-leaved coastal bermuda. Goats don't generally do well on Klein Grass hay, but they thrive on peanut hay and alfalfa. Alfalfa is high in protein and high in calcium, so control the usage of it . . . a little alfalfa goes a long way. A 70-pound bale of alfalfa will feed 50 adult goats. Hay must always be fresh, clean, and dry. . . and available all the time (free choice). Many producers have experienced sickness and death from goats having eaten moldy hay. Hay must be baled dry and stored in a dry location. Goats can quickly contract Listeria, "goat polio," and other brain-stem diseases from moldy hay or sileage. They will lose control of their legs, stagger, have difficulty maintaining their balance, and in advanced stages of these illnesses, the neck will be both rigid and bent to one side while the eyes are not focused. The remedy (if it works) is usually thiamine injections (Vitamin B-1) over a five-day timeframe. Sometimes an afflicted goat will suffer blindness. Dexamethazone injections can reduce the swelling affecting the optic nerve, but Dex cannot be used on pregnant does; it induces labor and can cause abortions. Further, Dex is a steroid and should only be used under veterinary supervision. Both Vitamin B-1 (thiamine) and Dexamethazone are vet prescriptions. Blindness usually goes away after a few weeks, once the thiamine treatment has been finished. Breeders in the southeastern part of the United States have lost lots of goats by feeding them sileage. NEVER FEED SILEAGE TO GOATS! Sileage is green chopped corn or grass or virtually any other forage that is cut and only partially dried, chopped into small pieces, and packed down tightly into a pit silo or airtight bag. Air tight is the key to producing useable sileage. Then it is allowed to ferment, going through an alcohol stage and then a pickled stage. When air gets to sileage, it molds, and that kills goats. Sileage is a real hazard in the warm South. It spoils faster than it can be eaten. Under the best of circumstances, sileage is fed to cattle at a rate that keeps exposure to air at an absolute minimum. Only really experienced producers, used to handling and feeding sileage, should feed it to goats. Many folks are very new to raising goats and don't know enough about sileage to warrant risking its disadvantages. DON'T TAKE CHANCES. DON'T FEED SILEAGE TO GOATS. Do not ever take healthy goats off hay or browse. Many show-goat people are being taught to feed only grain to try to add weight quickly and to reduce the size of the stomach. A goat must have roughage to survive. Hay and browse are that roughage. Goats are a species of animal who are uniquely adapted to thrive on sparse land in dry climates, and they can digest only a limited amount of protein. Feeding them too much processed feed can kill them. Adult goats need no more than 1.5 pounds of sack feed daily, and kids need even less. Of course, free-choice access to appropriate hays is assumed here. It is difficult to overfeed a goat on hay. And during times of really cold weather, do not feed extra sack feed; instead, feed extra hay. This is particularly true of lactating does. The bulk in their stomachs provided by the hay will keep them warm. Too much grain in the stomach of a cold, inactive goat at night equals big trouble. When feeding processed grain, remove all feed left after 15 minutes and feed a lesser amount the next day. If goats leave feed in the trough, they are being fed too much. And this grain should ideally be fed in the morning; if an overeating problem is going to occur, it will be discovered before nightfall. Additionally, the carbohydrates in the sack feed will permit goats to better cope with any browse that they encounter that might be toxic to them. Lots of grain mixtures that contain coccidia preventatives are commercially available. Acco makes one called Cocciban that is 16% protein. There is some recent evidence that this intestinal parasite is developing a resistance to such feed additives. During dry weather and/or when there are no small kids in the herd, consider switching to an unmedicated feed for several months. Acco's Goat & Kid is 13.5% protein and quite adequate for hot-weather use, since goats tend to be less active under very hot weather conditions. The 3/16th inch pellet (rabbit-pellet sized) is best, as small kids can eat it more easily. Goats can overeat and die. Shell (deer) corn is a favorite with goats . . . it is goat "candy"... and should be fed very sparingly and only as an inducement to bring the herd into the barn area. Pour water on a bowl of shell corn and watch it swell. That is precisely what occurs in a goat's stomach when it eats too much shell corn. Sack feed already has a proper amount of corn product in it. Goats suffering from almost any illness, and particularly from anemia (usually related to severe worm infestation) should be given access to fresh green leaves daily. This natural goat food is unsurpassed in healing ability. A sick goat will eat fresh green leaves when it will eat nothing else! Oral drenches of Red Cell (WalMart) and injections of Vitamin B-12 (vet prescription) are also advisable in such circumstances. Producers are encountering urinary calculi in goats. Male Boers kept penned and lavishly fed are prone to this problem , ahthough urinary calculi is definitely not limited to the Boer breed. Urinary calculi is a health problem directly resulting from improper feeding. Never feed goats milo, maize, or horse & mule (sweet) feed,all of which have an improper calcium-to-phosphorus ratio. The proper ratio of calcium to phosphorus is 2.5 to 1. Urinary calculi prevents urination and breeding in males. It can also affect females, but the urethra is straight in females, so blockages usually don't occur. A male goat with urinary calculi should be taken immediately to a good goat vet. If the vet is able to remove the blockage, usually by cutting off the tip of the penis, the goat should be taken off all feed for 24 hours, penned with lots of fresh water and a salt block, orally drenched daily with two (2) tablespoons of ammonium chloride dissolved in 60 cc of water, and carefully watched. If he is urinating without straining after 24 hours, give him access to hay and browse, but continue to drench him orally with this ammonium chloride solution for at least two weeks. Urinary calculi is very preventable. Just feed goats properly. Urinary calculi is often a problem in wethers. This can be largely prevented by waiting until the male goat is five to six months old, when the diameter of the urethra has grown to full size, before removing his testicles (under a sedative, by a vet, of course). Some feed manufacturers add ammonium chloride to their products. Read all labels carefully. Although ammonium chloride is inexpensive, it is difficult to find in small quantities. Pipestone Vet Supply (1-800-658-2523) has four pound packages for about $3.50 plus shipping. But first of all . . . CUT BACK ON THE AMOUNT OF GRAIN BEING FED. A brief mention about grain receptacles (feeders): If a goat can't destroy a trough, it will urinate in it, drop goat "pills" into it, turn it over, or sleep in it. Troughs made from either schedule 40 or schedule 80 PVC pipe cut in half length-wise and mounted either on fences at head height or on a frame for placement on the ground work best. Drill small holes along the bottom for water to drain out. Six-inch diameter PVC pipe makes good troughs. Kids need to be considered, both in terms of the height of fence-mounted troughs and in diameter of ground-based feeders so that they don't sit/sleep in them. Goats are voracious eaters and efficient brush clearers. Since goats like to eat "from the top down," areas where goats forage will have a "browse line" below which virtually everything is cleared off. Because they are both more cost effective and environmentally sound than heavy machinery, goats are used in many places by forest services to clear fire breaks. If you are fortunate enough to have land covered with good forage, goats will be cost effective for you.                           Important! Please Read This Notice! All information provided in these articles is based either on personal experience or information provided by others whose treatments and practices have been discussed fully with a vet for accuracy and effectiveness before passing them on to readers. In all cases, it is your responsibility to obtain veterinary services and advice before using any of the information provided in these articles. Suzanne Gasparotto is not a veterinarian.Neither tennesseemeatgoats.com nor any of the contributors to this website will be held responsible for the use of any information contained herein.     The author, Suzanne Gasparotto, hereby grants to local goat publications and club newsletters, permission to reprint articles published on the Onion Creek Ranch website under these conditions: THE ARTICLE MUST BE REPRODUCED IN ITS ENTIRETY AND THE AUTHOR'S NAME, ADDRESS, AND CONTACT INFORMATION MUST BE INCLUDED AT THE BEGINNING OF THE REPRINT. We would appreciate notification from any clubs or publications when the articles are used. (A copy of the newsletter or publication would also be a welcome addition to our growing library of goat related information!)     [GoatCamp™] [Tennessee Meat Goats™] [Myotonic Goats] [TexMaster™ Goats] [Which Breed is Right for You?] [Ranch History] [The Present & Future] [Meat Goat Mania] [Registry of Myotonics, Tennessee Meat Goats™ and TexMasters™] [News & Events] [Health and Management Articles] [Links] [ChevonTalk Discussion List] [E-Mail] [Home]         All information and photos copyright © Onion Creek Ranch and may not be used without express written permission of Onion Creek Ranch. TENNESSEE MEAT GOAT ™ and TEXMASTER™ are Trademarks of Onion Creek Ranch . All artwork and graphics © DTP, Ink and Onion Creek Ranch.     Site Hosted by Khimaira Web Hosting  
Saturday, 04 July 2009 | 6861 hits | Print | PDF |  E-mail | Report
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You aren't signed in     Sign In    Help Home The Tour Sign Up Explore Explore Page Last 7 Days Interesting Popular Tags Calendar Most Recent Uploads Video on Flickr Explore Analog Flickr Clock World Map Places The Commons Creative Commons FlickrBlog code.flickr Flickr Services Do More, Order Prints Camera Finder Search · Everyone's Uploads Groups Flickr Members For a Location baalands' Photostream Anemic eye           The pale membrane's of this lamb's eyes are indicative of severe barber pole worm (Haemonchus contortus) infection and impending death. This blood-sucking worm is a major killer of sheep and goats in warm, moist climates.  To take full advantage of Flickr, you should use a JavaScript-enabled browser and install the latest version of the Macromedia Flash Player.   Would you like to comment? Sign up for a free account, or sign in (if you're already a member).   Guest Passes let you share your photos that aren't public. Anyone can see your public photos anytime, whether they're a Flickr member or not. But! If you want to share photos marked as friends, family or private, use a Guest Pass. If you're sharing photos from a set, you can create a Guest Pass that includes any of your photos marked as friends, family, or private. If you're sharing your entire photostream, you can create a Guest Pass that includes photos marked as friends or family (but not your private photos). Learn more about Guest Passes![?] Uploaded on February 14, 2007 by baalands baalands' photostream   0     Animal Health (Set) 120 items Part of: Sheep and goats This photo also belongs to: Sheep (Pool)   0     Interesting anything (Pool)   0     Views: 3000 (Pool)   0     10 Million Photos (Pool)   0     What BIG EYES you have! (Pool)   0     Tags sheep lamb eye anemia Show machine tags (0) Hide machine tags (0) Additional Information All rights reserved Anyone can see this photo Taken in Suffolk City County , Virginia (map) Taken on August 17, 1999 0 people call this photo a favorite Viewed 6,414 times     Add to your map Yay location removed ... (Some formats are OK.) Anyone will be able to see this on the map  (edit) Or, remove it from the map. Or, remove it from the map.   Finding location... Finding location...   (Some formats are OK.) Or, cancel. Are you sure you want to remove this from the map? Removing location... Saving location...   Or, search again. (Some formats are OK.) Or, cancel. Do any of these fit?       Or, search again. (Some formats are OK.) Or, cancel. Are you sure you want to remove this photo's geo information? Who can see this on the map. Only You Your Friends and/or Family Your Family Your Friends Your Contacts Anyone (Recommended) Or, cancel.     (Just so you know, it'll take a few minutes to make those updates. But you can carry on as normal while we do the work in the background.) Go to the map | See nearby photos and videos       Map data CCBYSA 2009 OpenStreetMap.org contributors       You Sign in | Create Your Free Account Explore Places | Last 7 Days | This Month | Popular Tags | The Commons | Creative Commons | Search Help Community Guidelines | The Help Forum | FAQ | Sitemap | Get Help  Bookmark on Delicious Flickr Blog | About Flickr | Terms of Use | Your Privacy | Copyright/IP Policy | Report Abuse | Deutsch | English | Español | Français | | Italiano | PortuguĂŞs Copyright © 2009 Yahoo! Inc. All rights reserved.    
Tuesday, 18 August 2009 | 6940 hits | Print | PDF |  E-mail | Report
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  COCCIDIOSIS Coccidiosis is a "stealth killer" of goats because symptoms are easy to miss and irreversible damage can be done if the illness is not quickly treated. The protozoan organism which causes Coccidiosis is the intestinal parasite of the genus Eimeria and is species specific -- which means that Coccidiosis in one species of animal cannot infect animals of another species. Example: The long-held belief by some livestock breeders that chickens can infect goats with Coccidiosis is not true. The parasite causing Coccidiosis is passed through fecal-to-oral contact. While adult goats can contract Coccidiosis (particularly does that have recently kidded -- their bodies are under stress from the demands of nursing multiple kids), young kids' immature immune systems make them susceptible to this disease. Recall how kid goats pick up and "mouth" everything in their surroundings. Some of those objects are goat "pills" (feces) that are coccidia-infected; the parasites quickly take up residence in the kids' intestines. Coccidiosis is a disease caused by stress from overcrowding, dirty and/or wet pens, and unclean water. Coccidiosis is very contagious and will spread through a herd like wildfire. The first symptom is usually -- but not always -- diarrhea. Along with diarrhea always comes dehydration and sometimes fever. If treatment isn't begun immediately, permanent damage will be done to the intestinal lining and the goat won't be able to absorb nutrients from its food. Weight loss is substantial and sometimes chronic (cannot be cured); if it lives, the goat will always be "poor." In advanced cases of Coccidiosis, diarrhea can be watery, and may contain mucous and blood. Bloody diarrhea is blackish in color. Fecal testing is essential. A fecal sample placed under a microscope will quickly reveal to a vet the presence of coccidia oocysts in the goat pills. Begin doing your own fecals to keep better control over the health of your herd. This writer's article explaining an easy and inexpensive fecal-testing procedure appears on the Articles page. Diarrhea in kids does not always mean Coccidiosis, but it must be considered. Fecal testing removes any doubt. Remember, diarrhea is a symptom of an illness and not an illness in and of itself. See this writer's article on Diarrhea on the Articles page . Dewormers have no effect on coccidia. Medication required for treating Coccidiosis, both preventatively and curatively, is totally different from deworming products. Over-the-counter products for treating Coccidiosis include Albon, its generic equivalent Sulfadimethoxine 12.5% (Di-Methox 12.5% Solution by AgriLabs), and CoRid. CoRid is no longer recommended by many professionals because (a) some strains of coccidia have become resistant to it, and (b) CoRid is a thiamine (Vitamin B 1) inhibitor. The importance of thiamine in keeping goats healthy is difficult to overstate. This writer prefers to use the DiMethox 12.5% solution; it is a generic of Albon and much less expensive. Although Di-Methox 12.5% comes in both liquid and powder, the liquid is easier to dose properly. To treat a herd that is already infected with coccidia, administer three to five cc's of undiluted liquid Di-Methox 12.5% orally to each kid daily for five consecutive days. For adults, dose at eight to ten cc's in the same manner. Di-Methox 12.5% can also be added to drinking water; follow package directions. Limit access to the water source being medicated. Automatic waterers must be turned off to maintain correct dosage strength. Do not fail to individually orally dose each goat, even if the herd's water supply is also being medicated. Preventative dosage is usually one-half the curative dose; read product labels. The prescription antibiotic of choice is Primor. Administer one tablet orally in the morning and the second tablet by mouth in the evening of the first day -- and then one tablet orally each day thereafter -- for a total of five consecutive days. Primor comes in body-weight dosages, and the tablets are scored so that they can be split in half for accurate dosing. Endosorb, a prescription tablet that calms the gut, dissolves readily in ReSorb, other electrolytes, or water for easy oral dosing. If Endorsorb is not available, over-the-counter Tagamet 200 can be given to goats; kid dosage is is one-half of a Tagamet 200 tablet daily for five consecutive days. Use one Tagamet 200 tablet daily for adult goats. Pepto-Bismol given orally may also be used to reduce to coat the lining of the stomach and reduce gut irritation. For controlling life-threatening watery diarrhea, the liquid antibiotic Sulfamethoxazole & Trimethoprim Oral Suspension 200mg/40mg per 5 mL (prescription) is excellent. Given orally, the dosage is 2 cc per 100 pounds bodyweight. Dose accurately, as overdosing will constipate the goat. If the prescription antibiotic Primor is not doing the job of stopping watery diarrhea, consider changing to the ultimate prescription antibiotic for goats -- Baytril 100. Baytril 100 is available both in injectable and tablet form, but the oral treatment is believed to work faster in the gut of the goat. Occasionally a goat has an allergic reaction to Baytril 100 and joint swelling (usually in the knees) occurs, so use it sparingly and as a last resort. Treatment is available to resolve this rare problem; it takes a long time to achieve a cure. Injectable Baytril 100 is easier (and safer to the producer) to use than oral tablets when medicating big and strong goats -- particularly bucks. NOTE: Some jurisdictions prohibit use of Baytril or Baytril 100 in any form (injectable or tablets) in food-production animals; check with your vet. Banamine is an excellent prescription medication for both calming the gut and bringing down fever. Normal goat body temperature ranges from 101.5 degrees F. to 103.5 degrees F. Banamine should be administered intramuscularly (IM) at a rate of 1 cc per 100 pounds of body weight. A newborn kid would receive .1 - .2 cc (one-tenth to two-tenths of a cc) of Banamine. Banamine should not be used but once every 36-72 hours; it has the potential to cause stomach ulcers. A severely dehydrated goat should receive Re-Sorb electrolytes, both in an oral drench and in its water supply. Additionally, Lactated Ringers Solution (an inexpensive vet prescription that no producer should be without) should be given under the skin (SQ) at both shoulders -- dose 30 cc per shoulder SQ for kids. A 60 cc syringe with an 18-gauge needle should be used for this procedure. Keeping the goat hydrated with Re-Sorb (or equivalent) electrolytes and Lactated Ringers Solution (LRS) is critical to the animal's survival. Gatorade or Pedialyte may be used in place of Re-Sorb in emergencies, but these products don't have enough glucose -- so keep a supply of ReSorb packets in the medicine chest. Rehydrating an adult goat that won't drink on its own requires stomach tubing in order to get enough liquid into its body. No amount of oral drenching or giving Lactated Ringers SQ will rehydrate an adult goat. See this writer's article on Stomach Tubing Goats on the Articles. Green leaves are the best natural product to feed to a sick goat, regardless of the illness. Green leaves will be the first food that it will eat, followed by hay. Don't offer sacked/processed grains to a sick goat; they are too difficult to digest. A goat will begin eating sacked or processed grain feeds only when recovery is well underway. NOTE: This article provides information on a variety of medications for use with Coccidiosis. Do not try to use them all at one time. Faced with Coccidiosis in a goat, this writer would start treatment with Sulfamethoxazole & Trimethoprim Oral Suspension in an animal with very watery diarrhea, then switch to Di-Methox 12.5% liquid oral solution when the stool begins to achieve a "pudding-like" consistency. On run-of-the-mill cases of Coccidiosis, my choice would be Di-Methox 12.5% liquid oral solution. If fever exists, a Banamine injection would be given. If fever is not present, either Endorsorb, Tagamet 200, or Pepto-Bismol would be used. If Di-Methox 12.5% liquid oral solution didn't work, then Primor tablets(prescription) would be dosed. The prescription antibiotic Baytril 100 would be used as a last resort, when no other treatment has worked. Lactated Ringers Solution would be given SQ at the shoulders to a kid who is not drinking on his own. In all cases, ReSorb electrolytes would be used to avoid/cure dehydration in both kids and adults. Green leaves, if available, should be offered to all sick goats old enough to eat solid food. At the completion of every five-day antibiotic treatment, repopulate the goat's gut with live bacteria by dosing with an oral probiotic. Goat Guard Probiotic Paste sold by Register Distributing in Wade, North Carolina is this writer's choice. Furney Register can be reached at 1-888-310-9606 or on the Web at www.goatsupplies.com When kids begin eating solid food at around two to three weeks of age, the producer should consider offering a goat feed containing a coccidiostat to help prevent a coccidiosis outbreak. The general timeframe that kids are at risk for Coccidiosis runs from about two weeks of age (when they begin to pick at solid food) and through five or six months of age (when the immune system is somewhat developed). Feeding a coccidiostat-laced feed will not overcome over-crowding and filthy living conditions. Once goats are infected, cocidiostat-treated feed will not cure Coccidiosis. Some types of coccidiostats are toxic to other farm animals; investigate before choosing a coccidiostat. Prevent Coccidiosis by keeping pens and bedding clean, water fresh, goats uncrowded, and areas dry. Wet and dirty conditions are incubators of Coccidiosis for both kids and adults. Don't forget the absolute necessity of rotating pastures. No amount of treating for Coccidiosis (or deworming) will offset the need to rotate goats every three weeks into clean, uninfected, and uncrowded paddocks.
Monday, 18 April 2011 | 7100 hits | Print | PDF |  E-mail | Report

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